Bulletin of Business and Economics (BBE)

ISSN - 2414-1771 (Print)

ISSN - 2409-9368 (Online)

Antecedents and Consequences of Emotional labor : A review


Tayyaba Rafique, Salman Tasleem, Qandeel Hassan, Annum Tariq, Sammer Mumtaz


Rafique, T. Tasleem, S. Hassan, Q. Tari, A. and Mumtaz, S. (2017). Antecedents and Consequences of Emotional labor : A review. Bulletin of Business and Economics, 6(4), 157-165.


The purpose of this study is to observe conceptualize emotional labor with antecedents and consequences. As part of service job, Emotional labor means to express emotions while providing services to customers. Its outcome can be beneficial for customers, employees and organizations, that’s why airlines want attendants to smile and act friendly and hospitals want nurses to show concern and compassion towards their clients or customers etc. Emotional labor exists among service providers and customer interaction to provide quality service and to get customer satisfaction. This research describes that emotional labor has major two types, firstly surface acting (faking emotion), secondly deep acting (try to modify inner feelings). First one is not harmful for employees in service job because it is supposed to be in-line with organizational objectives. Second one can be harmful if it is not controlled by employees because it can cause emotional conflicts among employees. Emotional Conflicts mean contradiction between employees’ personal feelings and the feelings which organization desires. But in fact, deep acting is positively related with organizational commitment, job satisfaction, customer satisfaction and job performance. Emotional labor has four dimensions: frequency of appropriate emotional display, frequency of interactions, attentiveness to display rules and variety of emotional expressions & emotional dissonance. These dimensions have their own antecedents and consequences. This study investigates antecedents and consequences of emotional labor in subsequent sections.


Emotional labor, Consequences

Jel Code:

D91, O33

Article Type:

Research Paper




Research Foundation for Humanity (RFH)

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