Bulletin of Business and Economics (BBE)

ISSN - 2414-1771 (Print)

ISSN - 2409-9368 (Online)

The determinants of inclusive growth in Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis


Maria Safdar, Atif Khan Jadoon


Safdar, M. and Jadoon, A. K. (2019). The determinants of inclusive growth in Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis. Bulletin of Business and Economics, 8(1), 34-45.


This study aims to answer the question that “urban population has a detrimental impact on inclusive growth?” (GINI coefficient is used as a proxy to measure inequality). For this purpose, Autoregressive Distributed Lag model (ARDL) is used to observe the cointegration among all variables of the model. The vector error correction technique has used for short run dynamics.  The empirical result confirms the presence of cointegration among the urban population and GINI coefficient of the model. These results reveal that urban population has a deep-rooted impact on the inclusive growth of the economy. Hence, if Pakistan desired to achieve inclusive growth for the economy, then Pakistan has to make urban population strong and productive.


urban population, GINI, secondary education, inflation, foreign direct investment

Jel Code:

F3, N9, P24

Article Type:

Research Paper




Research Foundation for Humanity (RFH)

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